Patterson et al.: COVID vaxxed persons with PASC-like symptoms exhibit markers of platelet activation & proinflammatory cytokine production, likely driven by the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein

SARS-CoV-2 S1 Protein Persistence in SARS-CoV-2 Negative Post-Vaccination Individuals with Long COVID/ PASC-Like Symptoms

“Enrolled 50 post-vaccination individuals who experience post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC-like) symptoms, 10 healthy individuals, and 35 individuals post-vaccination without symptoms…performed multiplex cytokine/chemokine profiling with machine learning as well as SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein detection on monocyte subsets using flow cytometry and mass spectrometry…

Determined that post-vaccination individuals with PASC-like symptoms had similar symptoms to PASC patients. When analyzing their immune profile, post-vaccination individuals had statistically significant elevations of sCD40L, CCL5, IL-6, and IL-8. SARS-CoV-2 S1 and S2 protein were detected in CD16 + monocytes using flow cytometry and mass spectrometry on sorted cells.

Taken together, these findings suggest a possible mechanism for the debilitating symptoms found in some patients weeks and months following vaccination. The findings that the immune profile and persistent S1 protein in CD16 + monocytes suggest that S1 protein persistence is a major contributor not only of symptoms in post-vaccination individuals with PASC-like symptoms but also may be a major contributor of PASC itself given that S1 alone delivered by vaccination can cause similar pathologic features.”